Gender Differences - HIV Infection with Particular Reference to the Situation among Ukrainian Women.Burruano L, Kruglov J, Marcynovskaya V.
Larissa Burruano, MPH Department of Epidemiology, Social Medicine and Health System Research (OE 5410), Hannover Medical School , Karl-Wiechert-Allee 3 30625 Hannover, Germany; firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Ukraine is one of the European countries with the fastest growing number of cases of HIV. In the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV) year-end report 2005, the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the Ukraine was the second highest in the WHO European Region. Women are increasingly contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDS. HIV infection by sexual contact is the most common way of HIV transmission among women. Reported HIV/AIDS cases from the official epidemiological register of the Ukrainian Centre for AIDS Prevention between 1995 and 2005, alongside data from seroepidemiological monitoring since 2002 were analysed. During 1987, 6 individuals (5 women) were registered with HIV. In 1995, the reported number of HIV infections increased to 1,490 (554 women), a 34-fold increase in comparison with 1994. In the newly infected HIV cases, the proportion of women rose from 37.2% in 1995 to 41.6% in 2005. There has also been a considerable increase in mother-to-child transmission of HIV since 1995. Between 1987 and 1994, the proportion of children among the newly HIV infected people was 2.2%. In 2005, it was 18.2%. In 2005, 13,770 new cases (8,044 men and 5,726 women) were registered, corresponding to about 28 cases per 100,000 population. HIV posed no significant problem in the Ukraine before 1995. Since 1995, there has been a considerable increase in the number of registered cases, especially among women. The significant increase in HIV infection among newborn children shows that women are contributing ever more to the propagation of HIV/AIDS too. Unless effective preventive measures are taken, and unless there is more investment in development projects, an HIV/AIDS epidemic may become a threat not only in the Ukraine, but also in neighboring European countries. The promotion of gender equality as well as investment in the education of girls and women should be improved to effectively prevent AIDS.
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