agasfer (agasfer) wrote,
agasfer
agasfer

2D:4D

Я думал, это давно забыто, но гляди-кась, Наука Об Измерении Пальцев потихоньку набирает обороты...Можыт, что-то в этом есть? Учил же Мичио Куши, что у идеального человека рот и нос должны быть одинаковой ширины, а современная широкоротость человечества есть последствия деградации от неправильного питания.

Early Hum Dev. 2003 May;72(1):57-65.

Second to fourth finger ratio and possible precursors of developmental psychopathology in preschool children.

Williams JH, Greenhalgh KD, Manning JT.

Department of Child Health, The Medical School, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK. justin.williams@abdn.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: The influence of sex steroids upon brain development has been suggested to mediate sex differences in developmental psychopathology. The ratio of the length of index finger or second finger to the ring finger or fourth finger (the 2D:4D ratio) appears to be a marker of early sex hormone exposure, with low 2D:4D associated with high prenatal testosterone and high 2D:4D associated with high prenatal oestrogen. This relationship allows a non-invasive measure of the long-term influence of prenatal sex steroids. Behaviours such as hyperactivity and poor social cognition are common in preschoolers. An association between 2D:4D and these possible precursors of psychopathology would be most readily identified in this group. AIM: To identify relationships between 2D:4D ratio and behaviours in preschool children which constitute possible precursors of developmental psychopathology. STUDY DESIGN: Population survey. METHOD: The 2D:4D ratio was measured in a group of preschool children and behavioural questionnaires were given to parents and teachers. RESULTS: Sex differences in behaviours were small, whilst correlations with 2D:4D were strong. Low 2D:4D was related to hyperactivity and poor social cognitive function in girls, and high 2D:4D with emotional symptoms in boys. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that during early brain development androgens increase the probability of hyperactivity and poor social cognition in girls. Early oestrogens increase the probability of emotional problems in boys.

Ann Hum Biol. 2003 Nov-Dec;30(6):728-38.

Second to fourth digit ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-chest ratio: their relationships in heterosexual men and women.

Fink B, Neave N, Manning JT.

Ludwig-Boltzmann Institute of Urban Ethology, University of Vienna, Austria. bernhard.fink@ieee.org

BACKGROUND: Prenatal sex steroids have been broadly discussed in terms of their possible effect on brain differentiation, whereas pubertal/adult sex hormones are thought to be the main regulators of sexually dimorphic physical features in males and females. Assessing prenatal steroid exposure has previously been difficult but evidence now suggests that finger length ratio may provide a 'window' into prenatal hormone exposure. The length of the second digit (the index finger) relative to the length of the fourth digit (the ring finger) is sexually dimorphic as males have a lower second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). The sexual dimorphism is determined as early as the 14th week of fetal life, and remains unchanged at puberty. There is evidence that sex differences in 2D:4D arise from in utero concentrations of sex steroids, with a low 2D:4D (male typical ratio) being positively related to prenatal testosterone, while a high 2D:4D (female typical ratio) is positively associated with prenatal oestrogen. AIM: The studied aimed to determine whether, and to what extent, adult sexually dimorphic physical traits, which are largely determined at puberty, relate to traits that are largely determined in utero. This work examined the relationship between three sexually dimorphic traits--body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-chest ratio (WCR)--and digit ratio. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: BMI, WHR and WCR were assessed in 30 heterosexual male and 50 heterosexual female participants by recording their body height, weight, and measuring their waist, hip and chest circumference. Digit lengths of the second and fourth fingers were measured from photocopies of the ventral surface of the hand and by actual finger measurements. RESULTS: Digit ratio was found to be significantly lower in men than in women. Significant negative correlations were found between female's left and right hand 2D:4D, waist and hip circumference, and WCR. In males, BMI was found to be positively related to digit ratio but remained significant only for left hand 2D:4D. Generally, the relationships were stronger for females than for males. Although not all relationships were found to be significant, they were in accord with our predictions. CONCLUSION: In addition to an activational effect of sex hormones at puberty, the present data suggest an early organizational effect of sex hormones through the association between indices of female body shape, male BMI, and human finger length patterns.

Ну а это вапще цирк:

Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003 Oct 22;270(1529):2167-72.

Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance.

Neave N, Laing S, Fink B, Manning JT.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Northumberland Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK. nick.neave@unn.ac.uk

Previous studies have shown that male faces with extreme features associated with testosterone are perceived as dominant and masculine. Women have been reported to prefer more masculinized male faces as they may consider testosterone markers to be an 'honest' indication of good health, and such considerations may underlie their aesthetic preferences. However, pronounced testosterone facial markers are also associated with dominance, and several negative personality traits. This suggests that female aesthetic preferences may be an adaptive compromise between positive attributes associated with higher than average testosterone, and negative attributes associated with more extreme masculinization. This current study attempts to clarify the role of hormone markers in female perceptions of dominance, masculinity and attractiveness, in male facial images. Recent evidence suggests that the relative length of the 2nd to 4th finger (2D : 4D ratio) is a pointer to prenatal testosterone levels and may thus serve as a window to the prenatal hormonal environment. We measured 2D : 4D in a sample of male college students and took salivary samples to analyse circulating levels of testosterone. Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to 'organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women.

Да, по этой статье упдейт: У них там опечатка явно в последнем предложении, не attraction, a attrativeness нужно. Результат, однако ж, скорее всего некорректный, т к не могет такого быть, чтобы всех женщин одинаковые мужики привлекали. Скорей всего, "лошади" клюют на самцовость и любят злых-вонючих-волосатых; а "зебрам" это пофигу, или наоборот даже. Так что в среднем нет корреляции. Правильно, наверное, было бы коррелировать женский 2D:4D с их предпочтением к низкому 2D:4D у мужиков.

Есть еще неск сцылок; заголовки типа

Firman RC, Simmons LW, Cummins JM, Matson PL. Related Articles, Links
Are body fluctuating asymmetry and the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length reliable predictors of semen quality?
Hum Reprod. 2003 Apr;18(4):808-12.

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